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收录时间:2018-12-13 16:18

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原来苹果手机以旧换新的真相是这样

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  An average smartphone contains 41 different elements-and last year alone 1.2 billion of the handsets were sold globally.
 
  一部手机中一般包含有41种元素,上一年一年全球就卖出了120亿部手机。
 
  This is causing an imbalance between the supply of metals and metalloids and their demand from consumers-a concept referred to as'criticality.'
 
  这样会导致金属及类金属的供给和顾客需求之间的不平衡,被称为“临界状况”。
 
  Researchers have now assessed the criticality of all 62 metallic-based elements on the Periodic Table to reveal which are most at risk and what that means for our gadgets in the long-term.
 
  研究人员现已对元素周期表中的62种金属元素的临界状况进行了评价,列出了处于濒危状况的金属名单,并从久远视点剖析了这些金属的储量能否满意人类制作小用具的需求。
原来苹果手机以旧换新的真相是这样
  Metal criticality is analysed in three ways-supply risk,vulnerability to supply restriction(VSR)and environmental implications.
 
  金属的临界状况经过三种办法剖析得出,供给危机、供给限制的脆弱性(VSR)以及环境影响。
 
  Using these three categories,researchers from Yale University led by Professor Thomas Graedel were able to see which metals and metalloids are most at risk within each group.
 
  经过运用以上三种目标,托马斯•格雷德尔教授等来自耶鲁大学的研究人员得出了处于濒危状况的金属名单。
 
  Many of the metals traditionally used in manufacturing,including zinc,copper,and aluminum,are not at risk,explained Professor Graedel.
 
  格雷德尔教授说,许多在传统制工作中运用到的金属如锌、铜和铝等并未处于濒危状况。
 
  However,the newer or less-common metals used in smartphones,infrared optics,and medical imaging,are vulnerable.
 
  可是在相对较新的智能手机、红外光镜、医学成像等范畴中运用到的、相对不常见的稀有金属反而比较风险。
 
  The team's results show that the limitations for many important metals used in smartphones and other gadgets are largely those related to supply risk.
 
  该团队的研究结果显现智能手机及其他小器械中运用到的许多重要金属都会由于供给危机而受到限制。
 
  These include gallium used in processor chips and selenium in transistors on these chips.
 
  这些金属包含数据处理芯片中运用到的镓以及这些芯片的晶体管中运用到的硒。
 
  Platinum group metals including gold and mercury have the highest environmental implications.
 
  而包含金、汞在内的铂类金属对环境形成的损害最大。
 
  'The metals we've been using for a long time probably won't present much of a challenge,'said Professor Graedel.
 
  格雷德尔教授说:“咱们对现已运用了很长时刻的金属反倒不必忧虑。”
 
  'We've been using them for a long time because they're pretty abundant and they are generally widespread geographically.
 
  “咱们能用这么长时刻就是由于它们储量丰厚、地理上散布得也很广。”
 
  'But some metals that have become deployed for technology only in the last 10 or 20 years are available almost entirely as byproducts.
 
  “可是最近一二十年鼓起的科技产业中所运用的金属几乎是作为副产品呈现的。”
 
  'You can't mine specifically for them;they often exist in small quantities and are used for specialty purposes.And they don't have any decent substitutes.'
 
  “咱们无法明确地直接对这些金属进行挖掘,它们储量小、用处特定,并且没有适宜的代替品。”
 
  The researchers listed these as indium,arsenic,thallium,antimony,silver,and selenium.There is no substitute for indium,in particular,and this could impact our touchscreens.
 
  研究人员列出的这类金属名单包含:铟,砷,铊,银和硒。其间铟没有任何能够代替它的金属,而它是出产触摸屏需求用到的重要资料之一。
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